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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea. There are about 4,500 species of cockroach, of which about 30 species are associated with human habitations and about four species are well known as pests.
Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about 30 millimetres (1.2 in) long and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, about 15 millimetres (0.59 in) long.

Cokroaches undergo incomplete metamorphosis. They active at night, hide during daytime. Besides they prefer to rest on surface that touches its back (make it feel safe). They move freely from building to building, and from drains and sewers and toilets to human habitations.

Moreover, cockroaches contaminate food products and utensils with their droppings, moulted skins, etc. Their infection can lead to allergy and asthma.

Type of Cockroaches

American Cockroach

American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), has spread throughout the world by commerce. They can be easily found in moist shady areas such as in basements, sewers, steam tunnels, and drainage systems.

This cockroach is readily found in commercial and large buildings such as restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, and where food is prepared and stored. American cockroach adults grow to an average length of around 4 cm. They are reddish brown and have a yellowish margin on the body region behind the head. Immature cockroaches resemble adults except that they are wingless.

The American cockroach is a scavenger that feeds on decaying organic matter and a variety of other foods. It is particularly fond of fermenting foods. It is second only to the German cockroach in abundance.

German Cockroach

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, measuring about 1.3 cm (0.51 in) to 1.6 cm (0.63 in) long and are particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and nursing homes. Sightings are most commonly reported in the evening hours as they are most active at night but it can be spotted during the day occasionally, especially if there is a large population or if they have been disturbed. This type of cockroach can emit an unpleasant odor when excited or frightened.
The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is very hardy and resilient against attempts at pest control. This is because of the large number of nymphs produced from each egg case, the short period between birth and sexual maturity, and their ability to easily hide due to their small size.

The mother also carries the egg case (called an ootheca) with her during the germination period, This cockroach is also smaller than many other species so it can more easily hide and fit into very small cracks and crevices to evade humans. The German cockroach is omnivorous and a scavenger. They particularly like starch, sugary foods, grease and meats. In certain situations where there is a shortage of foodstuffs, they may eat household items such as soap, glue and toothpaste or they may even turn cannibalistic, often chewing on the wings and legs of each other.

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