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WHAT IS ZIKA VIRUS?

15 Feb 2016
WHAT IS ZIKA VIRUS?
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Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
  •  Genre: Flavivirus
  •  Vector: Aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
  •  Reservoir: Unknown

Signs and Symptoms

The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
 

Recently in Brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in Zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast Brazil 
 

Transmission

Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from theAedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
 
Sexual transmission of Zika virus has happened, scientists say, but it appears to be rare.

 

Prevention

Since no specific treatment and no vaccine for this virus we had no choice to protect ourselves and future generation. Prevention and control relies on how we managed for each method manual or technically. We need a strong eradicate and dedication to reduce the cases from spread widely.
 
  • Handling issues with Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for Zika virus infection. Removal and modification of breeding sites) will reduce contact between mosquitoes and people etc. sanitation, chemical, mechanical and biological control. 
  • Using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.
  • During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
  • Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Treatment
No vaccine or medications are available to prevent or treat Zika infections.

Treat the symptoms:
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain.
  • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen. Aspirin and NSAIDs should be avoided until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of hemorrhage (bleeding). If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.


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